SACRED HEART STUDENTS CELEBRATE 1867

The following two entries are  contributions of Westley Youmans and Brianna Young were sent to us by Sacred Heart School.  

CHILDREN IN 1867  

By Brianna at Sacred Heart School
Have you ever wondered what growing up was like in 1867?        Well I have and here is what I have found.

Family Home

Children didn't have a lot of time to play. A typical day went like this: wake up and have a bite to eat then off to do chores. If you lived in a village and your mom and dad owned a store you helped out around the store. If there was a lot of work to do, the parents would pull the kids out of school to get the job done.

 

Old Fashioned Fun

Children played outside when they weren't doing their chores or helping adults. They would play in wooden tubs and pretend they were in a boat. They also loved to play doctor. They played dressup with their mothers clothes. When they were lucky they would get a peppermint stick from the general store,  or on a hot summers day they would find a nice river or pond to fish and swim in.

Chores

When a child hit the age of five they are expected to do small sized adult chores such as picking berries and apples. They also collected eggs from the chickens, washed the families clothes,and looked after small animals. They also fetched water and milked the cows. One of the most dangerous jobs as a child were trying to get around the geese in the yard.


Hair/Clothes/Medicine

In 1867 the children did not go to barber shops. Their grandpa or grandma would sit them up on the back porch and cut their hair when needed. When children pass three years of age their clothes were made to look like small adults. Some clothes were made from skins of animals like deer,squirrel, rabbit ,bear and buffalo. The skins of the animal would keep the children warm in the colder months. Most clothes were made with wool or linen or both.
For medicine they would go to the doctor and depending on what was wrong he would make a paste made of different herbs and put them on the areas of the body that he thought were infected. There were not many doctors, so people tried to make their own medicine at home. There were two different kinds of herbal remedies. Simples and Benefits. Simples cured the illness and Benefits were like vitamins.

1867 - Pogonology, a hairy issue for men

The mustache was intensely popular during the Victorian times. Many men cultivated exaggerated, even dramatic mustache/beard combinations and the cult  of waxing elaborate mustaches became a very popular art form. What was it about the mustache that it became such a fashion for dandies in the Victorian times? 

With the end of French dominance  and the fashion of male wigs in Europe,   a new cultural force began to dominate, and with it a new expression of panache. For whereas the gentlemen under French inspiration covered their head in huge wigs, and rouged their cheek almost in competition with women, men of the 19th Century, under the growing Anglo/Germanic inspiration, cast aside the periwig and instead grew a face full of whiskers; their own Anglo-Germanic version of masculine stylish panache.

Thus it was that over the course of the 19th Century that the practice of pogonology   (the art of facial hair) was refined as an art form, and gentlemen expressed masculine fashion by growing a fine set of whiskers. Out of the fashion developed an entire industry of facial hair maintenance,  with special combs,  curlers,  dyes,  clippers,  nets,  guards, trainers  and protectors....even cups and spoons.  

This trend would end with the Belle Epoque when men would value being clean-shaven, but for about a century the mustache had a sort of heyday as the symbol of masculine panache.

Text reference: http://www.thedandy.org/home

Joseph Sultzer's Moustache curler

WITH HOT TEA,  wax would melt, and dye would run and gentlemen would get embarrassed,.  SO HARVEY ADAMS,   AN ENGLISH POTTER,  INVENTED THE CUP WITH A MUSTACHE PROTECTOR.

MUSTACHE SPOON

1867 described in 1927

Marmora 1867 

In 1867 the population of Marmora and Lake townships was jointly about 1500,   Lake township contained about 200, leaving about 1300 in Marmora township.  In 1865 there were forty-nine householders residing In the village and this number would be practically unchanged for several years afterwards.

Also living at this time on part of Lot 11, of the 7th Con., was Marmora's only  centenarian, as far as known, Royal Keys, at the time of Confederation, 103 years old, dying four years later at the great age of 107 years, 1 month and 26 days.

As will be noticed by the list of householders,  Marmora,  in the year 1865, had no resident physician. The nearest was Dr. T. F. English, of Stirling.  The one existing church at that time was the old Roman Catholic Church spoken of in these days as "the church across the river."  Father E.P. Talor is remembered as the ministering priest of that time. Other services were held in the old Town Hall by Rev. B. H. M. Baker, rector of Stirling;   Rev. J. A. Dowler, Wesleyan Methodist;  Rev. N.Howard, Episcopal Methodist; and Rev.  M McGilvray, Presbyterian.

At the time of Confederation, Marmora folk travelled to market by horseback or lumber-wagon in the main, and an odd person or so did not seem to mind an occasional walk. The actual day of Confederation was locally observed by about one third of the residents joining in a big celebration and picnic held on grounds on the Kingston road, Belleville.  About 500 of the military are said to have been in attendance and among other speakers were Hon. E. Murney, member of the Legislative Council for Trent Division and Gore Dickson, Barrister of Belleville. Included in those attending from Marmora was our highly esteemed resident Wm. Bonter, J.P.

Though to many the remembrance of Confederation day has become faded,  Mr. Bonter thrills yet in recalling the joy over its dawn. It may interest many readers to know that Sir John A. MacDonald, who has been described as the great spirit of Confederation,  unseated**  Anthony Manahan in 1844, who from 1825 to 1880 managed the Marmora Iron Works, when such were the property of  Mr. Hayes. This is on the authority of Nicholas Flood Davin, an historian who in 1877 wrote "The Irishman in Canada."

** "defeated" would be more accurate

Marmora Herald 1927

The householders were:

  • W. W. Armstrong, Land agent and township Clerk,  Simon Armstrong, blacksmith;
  • Benjamin Beddome, Division Court Clerk;
  • David Bentley, bailiff;
  • Julian Bissounette, agent for Gilmour & Co.,
  • G. W. Bleecker, Manor House;
  • D. G. Bowen, J.P., postmaster;
  • Ezekiel Boyd, yeoman;
  • Margaret Brady, widow,  inn keeper;
  • Wm. Norman Brady;
  • Baptiste  Bruneau, laborer;
  • Felix Carpenter, miner;
  • Charles Clairmont, blacksmith;
  • Eli Clairmont, blacksmith;
  • Patrick Crawford, mer chant;
  • George Daraha (or Darrah), yeoman;
  • Nelson Deline, laborer;
  • John Devlin, shoemaker;
  • Rec. J. Dowler,  Wesleyan Methodist minister;
  • Robert Fitzpatrick, laborer;
  • G. L. Houston, carpenter;
  • Mrs, Mary Hughes, widow;
  • Wm. Jenkinson, laborer;
  • Benjamin Johnson, J. P., merchant and hotel keeper;
  • Catherine Leggett;
  • William Leonard, driver;
  • Joseph McCloskey, laborer;
  • George McMillan, laborer;
  • Nelson McWilliams, hotel keeper;
  • Wellington McWilliams;
  • James O'Hara, yeoman;
  • D. N. Powell, flour mill;
  • Thomas Price, shoemaker;
  • Minerva Pringle, widow;
  • James Ranney, contractor;
  • Francis Revois, shingle maker;
  • Levi Rose, cooper;
  • Dennis Shannon, tailor;
  • Patrick Shea, shoemaker;
  • William Simmons, yeoman;
  • John Sloan, miller;
  • Lewis Tallion, cabinetmaker;
  • Jerome Tallion, cabinet
  • J. Vincent,  clerk;
  • Robert Wadsworth, tinsmith
  • Thomas Warren, carriage maker;
  • Nathaniel Weese;
  • Henry Weese,shoemaker.
 
 

Women's Role - Reverend Sedgewick's Opinion

Sarah Gladney Meath and dau Sarah abt 1865 Trenton Ontario

Mary Victoria Campion 1839-1913

Sarah Mariah (Johns) Bleecker 1839-1929

Jane Gladney Minchin Laycock, daughter Martha Laycock Robson Londry Mac Callum

Canadian Museum of History

“The Proper Sphere” — Women during the Confederation Era

Lecturing at the Halifax YMCA in 1856, Reverend Robert Sedgewick described what he believed to be the “proper sphere” of respectable women in Canadian society. Campaigning for political causes, holding public office, serving on juries, working in factories or similar activities would only coarsen women and draw them into competition with men. Instead, a woman’s place was in the home, where she could learn and apply the arts of housekeeping, comfort her husband, and raise and nurture her children.  Men were intended to go out in public to contend with the stress of business and politics, while women maintained the domestic sanctuary that was home. As the nineteenth century progressed, however, the reality of women’s lives included increasing participation in the political and social world.

The concept of separate spheres was buttressed by laws that gave husbands virtually all of the authority and economic control in a marriage. This division of responsibilities, however, disguises the complexities of women’s experiences during the Confederation era.

Maria Campion 1831-1915

Taking advantage of their position as caregivers and arbiters of morality, women did venture outside their homes to become leaders in church work and charitable societies.

To help alleviate the problems created by industrialization and urbanization, they established and staffed organizations which dealt with the plight of immigrants, orphans, unwed mothers, problem drinkers, the poor and the homeless. Some young women entered respectable skilled jobs as teachers and nurses. While higher education for women was unusual, a few women entered university in the “womanly” faculties of art and household science, as well as medicine and law. Many educated women believed they could better society by entering politics and campaigning for the female franchise.

The boundaries separating the spheres of middle-class women and men were further eroded when the husband could not support his family due to illness, desertion, poor character or death. Faced with the need to provide for her family, a woman relied on her own skills, education and connections.

One solution that drew naturally upon a woman’s housekeeping talents was running a boarding house. Some women operated dressmaking or millinery businesses. Accomplished artists and writers could choose some combination of tutoring and production for the commercial market. In these and other pursuits, women created livelihoods and some measure of independence for themselves.

FOR THOSE WHO LIKE STATISTICS

Statistics Canada

Who were the Canadians of 1867?

In 1867, 79% of the people living in Canada were born in Canada. These 2,616,063 people were called “Natives of British America.” As for the rest of the population, nearly 1 million Canadians were of French origin, while the remainder were of English, Welsh, Irish, Scottish and “Foreign” origins.

Most immigrants to Canada settled or passed through the United Province of Canada. Of the 18,958 people that arrived in 1865, “about 16,000 appear to have settled in Upper Canada (Ontario)  , and the remainder in Lower Canada(Quebec).”

Out of 837,718 recorded labourers, approximately 41% (342,649) of jobs were on the farm. Almost 90,000 people were involved with the fisheries, two-thirds of whom lived and worked in Newfoundland.  The shipbuilding industry was a growing industry in Canada, with Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island producing a total of 572 new vessels in 1865, up from 399 new vessels in 1860. In an explanatory note in  1867  says that “Owing principally to the abundance and excellence of timber, but partially to other causes, ships can be built here much more cheaply than in Europe, and 40 per cent cheaper than even in the United States.”

Great Britain and the United States bought the majority of exports from Canada’s mines—mainly copper ore and iron. In the year ending in June 1866, the value of metal exports was almost $350,000. Foodstuffs and other items were exported to many countries. Canada was also investigating trading options with countries in the tropics, including British Guiana, Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad, Antigua, St. Domingo, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Brazil.

These early years showed promise for Canada’s infrastructure. Electric Telegraph stations were prevalent in every province of British North America, to a total of 471 stations. By 1865, the Grand Trunk Railway, which included the Montréal and Champlain and the Buffalo and Lake Huron railways, was 1,377 miles long and its road and equipment alone had cost $81 million.

How did they pay for goods and services?

Several currencies were considered legal tender, although Canadian dollars were used in public accounts. The pound currency, pound sterling, “gold Eagle of the United States,” and British silver coins were considered legal tender. The Canadian dollar was defined to be “one fourth of a pound.” Paper money of Canada was issued in denominations of $1 and $4, in addition to other denominations still issued today.

CELEBRATING 1867 - NO REALLY! DID YOU KNOW?

TOILET PAPER

In 1867, Thomas, Edward and Clarence Scott (brothers from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA) were successful at marketing toilet paper that consisted of a small roll of perforated paper . They sold their new toilet paper from a push cart - this was the beginning of the Scott Paper Company.

STEAM-DRIVEN WOODEN MOTORCYCLE

Sylvester Howard Roper (1823-1896) was an American inventor from New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Roper developed a coal-powered, two-cylinder, steam-driven wooden motorcycle in 1867. Roper also developed a steam-driven car. Roper died at the age of 73 while testing a new motorcycle

 

THE TISSUE PAPER PATTERN FOR DRESSMAKERS

Ebenezer Butterick, together with his wife Ellen Augusta Pollard Butterick, invented the tissue paper dress pattern in 1863. Butterick founded the E. Butterick & Company (now the Butterick Publishing Company), in New York in 1867.

1867 ENTER DR. CHASE

Queen Victoria was pregnant at least 17 times ...9 children lived. After her husband's death, she spent 40 years in mourning. For her and her subjects death and illness were constant realities. The uncertainty of life lead no doubt to greater religious devotion. Sometimes it lead to an effort to fight back and even if science was not always up to the battle, the promoters were.

Enter Dr. Chase........

Despite his competitor's efforts, Dr. Chase's remedies remained best sellers for almost a century. "After graduating from the Eclectic College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio", the doctor is said to have travelled widely perfecting his concoctions. As early as 1867 he was selling into Canada and by 1884 was manufacturing here. By 1908 , a box of his Kidney Liver Pills was in one out of three Canadian homes.

Before the enactment of the Opium and Narcotic Control Act in 1908, many concoctions contained opium. That Act started with only two sections and prohibited the sale of opium, but still allowed merchants six months to dispose of their stocks. After 1908, the pharmaceutical companies had to adjust their elixirs, tonics and .- medicines featuring opium, but cocaine and morphine were still acceptable additions until 1911. In 1923, cannabis too was prohibited.

If nothing else these ingredients would surely lead to repeat customers.

No one seemed immune to the "tonic epidemic". Even two time "Miss America", Mary Katherine Campbell, was quoted to villagers touting a remedy called "Tanlac". "Indigestion drives the roses from a woman's cheeks and robs her of that radiant quality of womanhood that is real beauty ... rosy cheeks, sparkling eyes, a well-rounded figure, a lovable disposition, go hand in hand with good health".

Some popular medicine may have more easily created "rosy cheeks" than "good health". Dr. Chase's Medicinal Nerve Food should, it was directed, be taken one pill after each meal and one at bedtime for ten days. The dosage should then be doubled. This would eventually cure Nervous Headache, Pale and Sallow complexion and Irregular Heart Action. Although side effects were not discussed, the box shows that each pill contained both arsenic and strychnine. 

 

 

More on Deloro Arsenic

By 1901,  Deloro was the only arsenic producing plant on the American continent,  manufacturing arsenic     (99.4-100% pure AS203) on a commercial scale.  Production was 50-60 tons per month and 700 tons (valued at $42,000) was sold in 1901  for use in pesti-cides, fertilizer and cosmetics.  Somethings have not changed.    A recent study of modern Canadian cosmetics found them to contain arsenic,  lead and mercury!         Click here.

CONFEDERATION - MARMORA IN 1867

 

In 1867 patriotism was all aglow both throughout the country and in Marmora. The Marmora Iron Works had amalgamated with the Cobourg and Marmora Railway Company and the future looked good. Marmora may not have been as busy as in the first days of the Hayes Ironworks, but it was still known all over Canada and in many parts of the Old World.

 

Indeed the Village was referred to coloquially as "The Works" by residents near and far.  In the spirit of the times, Mrs. M. Brady, 'widow', opened the "New Dominion Hotel". James Albert. and Joseph Wellington Campion started a new hardware store and as well sold sundries, crockery, boots and shoes "at prices that defy competition". The competition was A.M. Chisholm who advertised in reply that he had the largest and best stock, "and as cheap as any establishment in Town or City".

 

George William Bleecker 1824-1895

Sarah Gladney Meath and daughter,   Sarah

There were at least five blacksmiths to shod your horses and four shoemakers to take care of your own feet.   Down Forsyth Street, George W. Bleecker ran a 'manor house', G.L. Houston was a carpenter, and John Downy was a teamster. On Main Street the Pearce family started covering the ledge beside the river with new stone buildings. On McGill Street, Hough and Loucks sold dry goods and paid high prices for 'Grain, hides, butter and potash'. The Warren family made carriages, wagons, and farming implements- all' promptly and neatly done'. Marmora was a complete and industrious little centre and no doubt proud of it. Indeed everything seemed to be about to boom even more. A new grist mill was being completed by "Messrs. Pearce and Son". It was a fine building, .three stores high, with 'two run of stone, and all the machinery of a first-class flouring mill'.

Over the next few years a saw mill and a carding and woolen mill would be built. Slowly the water power of the Crowe River would be used again,   this time by the Pearce Family to found a large enterprise extending northward miles into the bush and southward to Cobourg.

 On Confederation Day itself the newly combined Cobourg, Peterborough and Marmora Railway and Mining Co. advertised in the Daily Globe for "400 quarrymen, miners and labourers, to whom permanent employment will be given at the Company's Ore Bed and Works, at  Marmora".  Mr. Bentley was the manager at Marmora.  That year the company would see the first load of ore head off to the United States,  pulled by the Marmora "Pioneer"

1867 - The Maple Leaf Forever!

Yes, indeed - Forever!  The famous tune,  by a Toronto Scotsman,  was written in 1867.

 Alexander Muir,  (1830–1906) a Leslieville school teacher,  wrote the work after serving with the Queen's Own Rifles of Toronto in the Battle of Ridgeway against the Fenians in 1866.

Muir was said to have been inspired to write this song by a large maple tree which stood on his street in front of Maple Cottage,  a house at Memory Lane and Laing Street in Toronto.   The song became quite popular in English Canada and for many years served as an unofficial national anthem.   Because of its strongly British perspective  it became unpopular amongst French Canadians, and this prevented it from ever becoming an official anthem, even though it was seriously considered for that role and was even used as a de facto  anthem in many instances.

The tree which inspired Muir's song was felled during a windstorm on the night of  July 19,  2013. Residents have expressed their hope that the city will be able to start a new tree from one of the branches.

It has been asserted that Muir's words, however, while certainly pro-British, were not anti-French, and he revised the lyrics of the first verse from "Here may it wave, our boast, our pride, and join in love together / The Thistle, Shamrock, Rose entwine" to  "The Lily, The Thistle, The Shamrock,  the Maple Leaf forever" – the thistle representedScotland; the shamrock, Ireland; and the rose, England – adding "Lily", a  French symbol, to the list. According to other accounts, this was actually the original wording. Muir was attempting to express that under the Union Flag, the British and French were united as Canadians.

.The song makes reference to James Wolfe capturing Quebec in 1759 during  the Seven Years' War and the Battle of Queenston Heights and Battle of Lundy's Lane during the War of 1812.

wikipedia

Muir received his early education at home, from his father, but later graduated from Queen's College. .  He became a school teacher, in central Toronto, as well as in what were then much more suburban areas like Scarborough, Parkdale, and Leslie-ville.    Muir was active in the Loyal Orange Lodge, and was no doubt tempted to combine his philosophies as a member of this fraternal organization with his memories of active military service, by decrying the "evils" of Irish Catholicism in the classroom. 

 John McPherson, The House of A. Muir after a Shower in Toronto, 1907. (Toronto Reference Library)

1867 - WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE?!

No doubt,  you think you are familiar with this  famous 1884 picture - The Fathers of Confederation hard at work in 1864 at one of the many conferences  before  writing the final draft of the  1867 constitution.   In 1883 Parliament commissioned Robert Harris to paint all the delegates on one canvas to hang in the Centre Block in Ottawa

BUT THERE ARE SOME SURPRISES ABOUT THIS PICTURE.

Robert Harris (18 September 1849 – 27 February 1919) was a  Welsh born Canadian  painter

To start,  you have never seen a coloured photo of this painting. That's because it doesn't exist.  The original painting burned in a fire in Feb. 1916.  All that is left for us now is the black and white photo above  taken by James Ashfield in 1885.

Secondly,  it actually depicts two  1864 conferences (Charlottetown and Quebec)  in one event.  Harris has painted 33 delegates and the secretary Hewitt Bernard (upper left) as if they were all  in the same room together.

But that's not the end of the surprises.  In 1964, Rex Woods was commissioned to paint a replica of the Robert Harris painting for the 100th anniversary of the Confederation Conferences.  Adding  his own artistic licence  he painted in  four more figures., including three delegates ( far right) who were at the London Conference in England in 1866, and for a final touch  a portrait of the  original painter Robert Harris himself, hanging on the far right wall.

1867 Blairton's "Pioneer" to the Rescue!

July 5,  1867    The Cobourg World

 THE FIRST LOAD OF ORE! 

The Pioneer engine in Blairton

"On Monday last, the first load of iron  ore, -about ninety tons - arrived  over the Cobourg and  Marmora  Railway at  Cobourg wharves. A large number of people were  in waiting for its arrival, who testified their  delight at the auspicious event. Shortly  after the stoppage of the load, Dr. Beatty,  Mayor of Cobourg, in an appropriate speech, proposed three cheers for the Company, by whose energy, notwithstanding the mishap of Thursday night, the original programme had been carried out, The proposition  met  with an enthusiastic response. Cheers were afterwards proposed and given, with hearty good will  to Thomas Dumble, Esq. Jr, the energetic contractor, and to Dr. Beatty,  Mayor. The energy of the Managing Director and those engaged with him, certainly deserves all praise.

After the accident, having no engine upon this end of the road, the  "Pioneer" was immediately  sent for, and brought upon a scow from Belmont, in readiness to convey the first load of ore which arrived at Harwood on Saturday.    Now that business has fairly commenced, and several offers made for lake transportation, we may hope that the trade of the Company will increase, and their affairs abundantly prosper."

The accident referred to was described in another column:

"We regret to have to announce that after a most delightful day at the mines,  about midnight last night,  just after the Cobourg party,  consisting of about 150 of our citizens, had left Harwood for home,  having proceeded half a mile on their journey,   the fine new Engine,  "Marmora" ran over two cows which lay upon the track,  cutting them to pieces, and being itself thrown from the rails,  was precipitated down an embankment of twelve feet,  at the bottom of which it now lies,  upon its back,  a complete wreck.  Fortunately the coupling attaching it to the tender broke,  otherwise the whole train must have shared the fate of the engine,  in all probability with the sacrifice of many lives.  As it is,  no one has been injured.  The Company, however, has met with a very serious loss,  not only in the damage to the engine and track,  but in the disarrangement of their plans.  A few of the party walked the fifteen miles home;  while the bulk returned to Harwood and will reach home today as best they can."  The paper also added a foot note that the engine was,  in fact,  not "a complete wreck"  but was in fact,  scheduled for repairs,  and was expected to run again.

Cobourg Harbour with schooner and ore cars on raised trestle

What about a flag?

Wikipedia

Shortly after Canadian Confederation in 1867, the need for distinctive Canadian flags emerged. The first Canadian flag was that then used as the flag of the Governor General of Canada, a Union Flag with a shield in the centre bearing the quartered arms of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick surrounded by a wreath of maple leaves. The rest is history............

The Canadian Flag Education Centre is proud to present this chronological / historical account of who and how our beloved Canadian Flag was brought to fruition in 1964/1965. This video is made available with the approval of Historical Canada.

1965:  Sid Demorest, Legion President, presented the Marmora Scout troop with a new Canadian flag. The Legion were the Scount  sponsors and Wayne VanVolkenburg was the  Assistant Scoutmaster at the time.